Minority speakers in:
see also: Proto Onpotcor-Qhalqon Swadesh Lists
The Proto Onpotcor language is a mutually intelligible mix of dialects, spoken by the On, with the main differences occurring between the island and the mainland, with each landmass speaking mostly the same dialect. The mainland dialects, in particular, have a tendency to turn plosives into fricatives intervocaly. The language is a mainly prefixing OVS language, with a (C)V(V)(C) syllable structure. The language can be written using the Oncor writing system, a quite basic logographic script. The language is descended from the Proto-Onpotcor-Qhalqon language.
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g||ʔ|
|Fricative||f v||s z|
/ɾ/ is written as <r>, /ʔ/ as <q>, and /k/ as <c>.
Note that nasals match the position of any stops of other nasals that follow them (except for the glottal stop, which can only appear intervocally.)
Doubled consonants are geminates, and act as the initial to the second syllable they are in.
Vowels become lax in open syllables, including when followed by geminates, as follows: a becomes [ə], e becomes [ɛ], i becomes [ɪ], o becomes [ɔ], u becomes [ʊ]. This only occurs to the second vowel in a diphthong.
- an [an] central
- map [map] clothing
- anmap [ə.'mːap] dress
The Onpotcor language has the following diphthongs:
- ae [ae]
- ai [ai]
- ao [ao]
- ea [ea]
- ia [ia]
- io [jo]
- ou [ou]
- ua [wa]
- ue [we]
- ui [wi]
There are only 2 major dialects, Insular Onpotcor and Mainland Onpotcor, with the main distinction being that Mainland Onpotcor fricatizes non-nasal stops intervocally.
For example, with the word Bacar, the name for the mainland, and daoqon, or shaman.
- (Insular) Bacar [bak.'ar]
- (Mainland) Bachar [bax.'ar]
- (Insular) Daoqon [daɔ.'ʔon]
- (Mainland) Daohon [daɔ.'hon]
In theis article, all words are spelled according to the Insular pronunciation, and ignore minor dialects.
Proto-Onpotcor is primarily prefixing with an OVS word order.
- Boc pun et.
- rock hold 3
- He holds the rock.
Note that Proto-Onpotcor has 5 verb class: (1) intransitive, (2) transitive, (3) reflexive, (4) adjective, and (5) nominal. However, out of the first three 3 usages, only with class 2 is the usage consistent with the name, as there are some verbs that can take objects when in class 1, and both class 1 and class 2 verbs can be reflexive, while not all class 3 verbs strictly are reflexive. In these cases, word order changes so that the verb remains recognizable as being used according to its class. Classes 1-3 are indicated by changes in word order of the sentence, while classes 4 and 5 are indicated by suffixes on the verb.
Class 1 verb usage with objects places the object after the subject:
- Pun et boc.
- feel 3 rock
- He feels the rock.
Similarly, class 1 or 2 verb reflexive usage places the reflexive pronoun after the subject. Class two verb usage retains an object in the normal position, even if it is only the dummy pronoun cu.
- Pun caret zigcaret.
- feel PLR-3 REF-PLR-3
- They feel each other.
- Cu pun caret zigcaret.
- 4 hold PLR-3 REF-PLR-3
- They hold each other.
Normal reflexive verb usage has the reflexive pronoun in the normal location, and it matches the subject pronoun (which can be dropped as it is now understood.)
- Zigcaret pun (caret).
- REF-PLR-3 pleasure
- They pleasure each other.
- They pleasure themselves.
Verb classes 4 and 5 indicate that something is something in particular, and is used instead of a copula.
- Puna et.
- hand-VC4 3
- It is hand-like.
- Punrai et.
- hand-VC5 3
- It is a hand.
|∅||indicative||Cu danas et.||He is creating something.|
|nu||potential||Cu nudanas et.||He might create something.|
|zi||abilitative||Cu zidanas et.||He can create something.|
|ca||permissive||Cu cadanas et.||He is allowed to create something.|
|li||conditional||Cu lidanas et lug...||He would create something if...|
|mu||optative||Cu mudanas et.||I want him to create something.|
|ri||relative||Cu ridanas et...||that he creates something...|
|ro||dubitative||Cu rodanas et.||he may or may not create something. (I don't know which)|
|gu||inferential||Cu gudanas et.||He is creating something. (But I don't know for sure)|
I think he is creating something.
|ni||desiderative||Cu nidanas et.||He wants to create something.|
|cu||necessitative||Cu cudanas et.||He needs to create something.|
|fa||generic||Cu fadanas et.||He generally creates something.|
|-reduplication||imperative||Cu danasas et.||He must creates something!|
All moods can be stacked if necessary, particularly the necessitative, desiderative, and relative moods.