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Rinaki is spoken on Shwayunanki, an Island To the very south of Borea. It is spoken by the Narinaran, a people who have spread aross the island and to it's neighbour Lutuunta.

Rinaki is spoken on the south of the island, it later spread first east and then west. The easten dialect was taken to Lutuunta and is the ancestor of the languages spoken there. The west was carried to the northern Shwayunanki and then to the islands north.

Below is central Rinaki, which all Rinaki languages are decended.


PhonologyEdit

Phoneme Chart
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p t k
Affricate pf ts ch
Fricatives f s/z sh h
Nasal m n ng
Approximents w l y
Front Central Back
Close i ɪ ɯ
Open-mid e o
Open a

ɑ

Diphthongs

/ɑi/

/ei/

/oi/

GrammarEdit

VerbsEdit

Infix position oneEdit

The imperfective aspect is formed in the first position with w+v, where v is a duplication of the stem vowel, always found in the first syllable.

Hvìwìte I was arrived, they were hiding
Shuwuni you were laughing, he was laughing
Yäwäna I saw, you saw

The perfective is formed with y+v, again where v is the duplication of the stem vowel. The perfective is used when the action is completed whatever time it occured.

Eyesha I have eaten, I already ate
Poyo I have arrive, he's here
Ruyupfu It's ready, you made it

Transitive and ditransitive verbs with one less noun phrase can be given a passive meaning when used with the patient case

Foysha oratäwem eyesha I ate the fruit
Oratäwem eyesha the fruit has been eaten
Naviransha kuaneowem tuyukani the hunter killed the shark
kuaneowem tuyukani the shark has been killed

Infix position twoEdit

The Benefactive is formed in position two by placing -ol- after the consonant in the second syllable. It shows the action benefits the speaker

yänola someone see, to/for my benefit
navoli some hunts for me
rupfolu someone works for me

See the examples;

mawesha ngauwem yoshan the child is collecting shells
mawesha ngauwem yosholan the child is collecting shells for me

The antibenefactive is formed with the infix -ur- in the same place as the benefactive. It shows the action harms the speaker in some way

yäwänura someone is watching me
ruyupfuru some worked against me
navuri someone is hunting me

Examples in a sentence

kuaneosha yäwänura the shark watched me
tsumposha twuyumpuro the man chased me

The lauditive is formed with onk following the second syllable. The lauditive is used to express that the speaker is happy about the action.

navonki i'm hunting (and happy about it)

eshonka I'm eating (and enjoying it) wuyuonka I danced and had a marvelous time


The pejorative is formed with ämp. The pejorative implies the speaker is unhappy, annoyed by the action

malämpa It Stinks!

eyeshämpa I ate it (and it's horrid) kaämpa - I'm coming

CausativesEdit

In position two there is also a causative suffix that can be used, -an-, this makes the action forced or make it do the verb, e.g to die > make die - to kill

tuki to die > tukani to kill

esha to eat > eshana to feed

Tuskosha foywem urichoyunkipom winano Brother made me break the spear
Notice in this statement me has been demoted to accusative and the spear is now genitive from accusative

the benefactive, antibenefactive, lauditive and pejorative moods can be used in conjunction with the causative and always come after

Smowem tukanämpi He was killed

Smosha eshanonku she feeding me

ImperativesEdit

Rinaki has two imperatives, a hard imperative for commands and a weak imperative used for making requests.

The hard imperative is simply the base verb

Ka come!
Eshahano come here and eat!

The weak imperative is formed with -ah- after the first syllable

kaha please come here
uahno please hold this

Verbal morphologyEdit

Verbs can be intensified with the infix -sto- in the first syllable after the vowel

Tou hit > tostou smash/slap (with the hand)
Esha eat > estosha devour
Wu dance > wusto to go into/be in a trance

Reversely they can be softened with -kpì- in the same position

Tou hit > tokpîu tap
Kehe go/walk > kekpîhe sneak
Yäna see > Yäkpìna peak

Verbs can be given direction with the suffixes; -kwe to go somewhere to x and -huna to come somewhere to do x

nchuwem hnînarun navolikwe I went to the river to fish
Nasmo tsuyuoluhano they came here to sing for us

NounsEdit

Lenition occurs in nominal morphology, mainly in the plural but adposition can affect the initial consonant too. Below is a table referencing what consonant lenit to.

p t ts k m
f s s h v



PluralsEdit

There are three numbers in Rinaki; singular, dual and plural. The dual tio- is used for objects that occur in pairs or to sinuate that they do. Tio softens the following consonant

Tiosuska twin brothers
Tionari eyes
Tiohumia two friends

Anything more than two is pluralized with na-, again this causes lenition in the following consonant.

Nahwerunki ancestors
Naisiya bodies

PronounsEdit

There are three basic pronouns in Rinaki, the can also be made dual and plural.

1 I Foy

2 you hnina

2 s/he it smo

The second and third pronouns can be given the honorific –tsi, used when referring to spirits or ancestors. You never use the honorific when speaking about yourself.

DemonstrativesEdit

Rinaki has nine demonstrative pronouns separated into the distance from the speaker and number

They function as adjectives coming before their noun,

Tioepe tsumpo those two man over there
Ya eptaypfu foyhna makaha Please pass me that bread

To use them without a following noun –aski is added

hokuaski this one
Yaaski That one
Epeaski That one over there

Nominal Morphology Edit

There are five cases in Rinaki; the Agentive, Patientative, Localitive, Instrumental, Genitive, Dative.

Agentive sha is used when the subject performs the verb.

Tsumposha navi the man hunts
Foysha tsu I sing, I’m singing

Patientative wem is used for the patients of verbs, the person the verb acts on. This used with a verb on its own gives a passive meaning.

Tsumposha nchuwem navi The man hunts the fish
Unchoyunki wiyino The spear broke

The localitive is split into two, one to imply the subject is static or is at or in a location, the other expresses that the subject is moving toward a destination

-nan is used for the static localitive

smosha zunkanan seze she’s home
nahwesmi nasaronan pusu the birds live in the trees

-run forms the dynamic localitive

nasmo umpe shwayunanki hreyeptu they sailed to the other island
eperun kehe go away!

The instrumental is used to show how the object was performed and is made with -yun

Foysha ngakoeyun uyongi navoli I always hunt with a bow
Smosha eptaypfukiwem mwayktaypfokiyun eptolu she’s making bread with the flour

The genitive is used to show possession –pom. It also shows the demoted indirect object in causative sentences. When used to show possession it will become before its agreement, when used to show the indirect object it will come before the verb.

Foypom nanta My mother
Oechipom wektoy the girls comb
Foysha smowem meyaopom eyeshana I fed her the milk

The dative -hna is used to show the beneficiary of an action. It’s used to show another subject other than the speaker benefits from an action

Smosha eptaypfukiwem zurahna mayaka she gave her sister the bread

Vocative

The vocative eo used to address people or groups, rather than being a case ending it is a particle that comes before the addressee. It can form a simple greeting

Eo utska Hi! Sister


Derivational MorphologyEdit

Simple nouns can be formed from verb by the nominalizer –ki

Yäna see > Yänaki sight
Swä bleed > swäki blood
Wu dance > wuki dance

To form the result of a process from a verb use the infix –aypf- in the second infix position

Eptu to bake > eptaypfu > bread
Rupfu to make/build > rupfaypfu building, construction
Tatka to paddle > tatkaypfa > journey

Instruments can be made with –yunki

Fepa heal> fepayunki medicine/healing ritual
Mwaykto Grate > mwayktoyunki grater
Kimano Bind > kimanoyunki rope
tokpîu tap > tokpìuyunki hammer used for tattooing

one who does –ran

navi hunt > naviran hunter
wu dance > wuran dancer

Forming an abstract noun from a noun X-ness X-hood –rongi

Mawe child > mawerongi childhood
Kumia friend > kumiarongi friendship
Hvîna good > hvìnarongi goodness

To make an abstract noun from a verb use -laki

Ketu love > ketulaki love
Tuki die > tukilaki death

Reverence can be expressed with the suffix –tsi. It is used when speaking to Nayune or respected peers.

Nayunetsi honoured spirits
Nantatsi honoured mother

AdpositionsEdit

As well as the localitive and dative cases Rinaki has several adpositions to help clarify direction and postion.

Kutu- with (used to show joint participation with the verb
Hoku- close/here
Ya- middle/there
Epe- far/there/the other side of geological features; mountains, rivers etc
Ngio- right
Zu- left
Wio- Inside
Ru- outside
lun - North
kwu- East
utsi- South
asta- West

They all cause lenition if used as a prefix, however if the plural is used they come at the end of the word.

ruutspaypfu outside the basket
foysha kutusmo eyesha I had dinner with him
Epehnìna across the river
Foypom wiovieta Inside my body

Phrases and ClausesEdit

ConjunctionsEdit

Nominal phrases can be connected with kwomo which translates as and. There is no conjunction to join to verbal phrases, they simply follow one another.

Tsumpo kwomo kioe Man and women
Tsumposha kwomo kioesha' esha pipi' the man and women eat and drink

Phrases can be contrasted translated with uwau but/yet.

Tsumposha ungawem uwau oratäwem puesha The man eats meat but not fruit
Smosha kanzewem uwau smowem pachi She’ll kiss everyone but him

ClausesEdit

Simple relative clauses can be made with adjectivized verbs, this like other adjectives precede the noun

Foysha kuaneo tukaniyo tsumpowem tama zi tunkwe I’m going to see the man who killed that shark the other day

Foysha kwesmi täkpayo tsuskawem puyuya I’ll find whoever shot my bird

Dependent clauses precede the main and joined with a post positioned particle.

[yenrìyo wayräransha smopom tuskowem tuyukani susia,] nafoysha klupo We know [that the warrior killed his brother in anger]

Nantasha foywem towouuruhuna 'kan', keyestohole I ran away because my mother was going to beat me

If is expressed through hru

Luhta maka hru, erekonan wayanu If it’s sunny, we’ll play on the beach

The statement ...hruhru implies the meaning of disjunction

'Luhta mayaka hru hitsu mayaka hru', hnunusha nchuwem epezi navoli Whether it’s sunny or raining you are going fishing tomorrow

DialectsEdit

Rinaki is split into three dialects, the first is central and described above. The first dialect to differ from the central was Easten Rinaki, later Western Rinaki diverged.


Easten RinakiEdit

1 - Stops and fricative voice between vowels, unless preceeded by a nasal.or approximant
2 - stressed /e/ and /o/ become ie and ue
3 - /i/ > y / V_V #_V
4 -/u/ > w / V-V #_V

Cw_V tends to be pronounced labialized
Ci_V tends to be pronounced palatalized

Yu and Yo can become /jy/ and /yœ/ the more east you travel, as well as /ɹ/ and /l/ merging to /ɽ/

Western DialectEdit

1 - uk > kw > p
2 - Stops and fricative voice between vowels
3 - ud > dw > b
4 -ey > i, ay > e, oy > u
5 - ue/eu > œ
























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