Rinaki is spoken on Shwayunanki, an Island To the very south of Borea. It is spoken by the Narinaran, a people who have spread aross the island and to it's neighbour Lutuunta.
Rinaki is spoken on the south of the island, it later spread first east and then west. The easten dialect was taken to Lutuunta and is the ancestor of the languages spoken there. The west was carried to the northern Shwayunanki and then to the islands north.
Below is central Rinaki, which all Rinaki languages are decended.
Infix position oneEdit
The imperfective aspect is formed in the first position with w+v, where v is a duplication of the stem vowel, always found in the first syllable.
- Hvìwìte I was arrived, they were hiding
- Shuwuni you were laughing, he was laughing
- Yäwäna I saw, you saw
The perfective is formed with y+v, again where v is the duplication of the stem vowel. The perfective is used when the action is completed whatever time it occured.
- Eyesha I have eaten, I already ate
- Poyo I have arrive, he's here
- Ruyupfu It's ready, you made it
Transitive and ditransitive verbs with one less noun phrase can be given a passive meaning when used with the patient case
- Foysha oratäwem eyesha I ate the fruit
- Oratäwem eyesha the fruit has been eaten
- Naviransha kuaneowem tuyukani the hunter killed the shark
- kuaneowem tuyukani the shark has been killed
Infix position twoEdit
The Benefactive is formed in position two by placing -ol- after the consonant in the second syllable. It shows the action benefits the speaker
- yänola someone see, to/for my benefit
- navoli some hunts for me
- rupfolu someone works for me
See the examples;
- mawesha ngauwem yoshan the child is collecting shells
- mawesha ngauwem yosholan the child is collecting shells for me
The antibenefactive is formed with the infix -ur- in the same place as the benefactive. It shows the action harms the speaker in some way
- yäwänura someone is watching me
- ruyupfuru some worked against me
- navuri someone is hunting me
Examples in a sentence
- kuaneosha yäwänura the shark watched me
- tsumposha twuyumpuro the man chased me
The lauditive is formed with onk following the second syllable. The lauditive is used to express that the speaker is happy about the action.
- navonki i'm hunting (and happy about it)
eshonka I'm eating (and enjoying it) wuyuonka I danced and had a marvelous time
The pejorative is formed with ämp. The pejorative implies the speaker is unhappy, annoyed by the action
- malämpa It Stinks!
eyeshämpa I ate it (and it's horrid) kaämpa - I'm coming
In position two there is also a causative suffix that can be used, -an-, this makes the action forced or make it do the verb, e.g to die > make die - to kill
- tuki to die > tukani to kill
esha to eat > eshana to feed
Tuskosha foywem urichoyunkipom winano Brother made me break the spear
Notice in this statement me has been demoted to accusative and the spear is now genitive from accusative
the benefactive, antibenefactive, lauditive and pejorative moods can be used in conjunction with the causative and always come after
- Smowem tukanämpi He was killed
Smosha eshanonku she feeding me
Rinaki has two imperatives, a hard imperative for commands and a weak imperative used for making requests.
The hard imperative is simply the base verb
- Ka come!
Eshahano come here and eat!
The weak imperative is formed with -ah- after the first syllable
- kaha please come here
uahno please hold this
Verbs can be intensified with the infix -sto- in the first syllable after the vowel
- Tou hit > tostou smash/slap (with the hand)
- Esha eat > estosha devour
- Wu dance > wusto to go into/be in a trance
Reversely they can be softened with -kpì- in the same position
- Tou hit > tokpîu tap
- Kehe go/walk > kekpîhe sneak
- Yäna see > Yäkpìna peak
Verbs can be given direction with the suffixes; -kwe to go somewhere to x and -huna to come somewhere to do x
- nchuwem hnînarun navolikwe I went to the river to fish
- Nasmo tsuyuoluhano they came here to sing for us
Lenition occurs in nominal morphology, mainly in the plural but adposition can affect the initial consonant too. Below is a table referencing what consonant lenit to.
There are three numbers in Rinaki; singular, dual and plural. The dual tio- is used for objects that occur in pairs or to sinuate that they do. Tio softens the following consonant
- Tiosuska twin brothers
- Tionari eyes
- Tiohumia two friends
Anything more than two is pluralized with na-, again this causes lenition in the following consonant.
- Nahwerunki ancestors
- Naisiya bodies
There are three basic pronouns in Rinaki, the can also be made dual and plural.
1 I Foy
2 you hnina
2 s/he it smo
The second and third pronouns can be given the honorific –tsi, used when referring to spirits or ancestors. You never use the honorific when speaking about yourself.
Rinaki has nine demonstrative pronouns separated into the distance from the speaker and number
They function as adjectives coming before their noun,
- Tioepe tsumpo those two man over there
- Ya eptaypfu foyhna makaha Please pass me that bread
To use them without a following noun –aski is added
- hokuaski this one
- Yaaski That one
- Epeaski That one over there
Nominal Morphology Edit
There are five cases in Rinaki; the Agentive, Patientative, Localitive, Instrumental, Genitive, Dative.
Agentive sha is used when the subject performs the verb.
- Tsumposha navi the man hunts
- Foysha tsu I sing, I’m singing
Patientative wem is used for the patients of verbs, the person the verb acts on. This used with a verb on its own gives a passive meaning.
- Tsumposha nchuwem navi The man hunts the fish
- Unchoyunki wiyino The spear broke
The localitive is split into two, one to imply the subject is static or is at or in a location, the other expresses that the subject is moving toward a destination
-nan is used for the static localitive
- smosha zunkanan seze she’s home
- nahwesmi nasaronan pusu the birds live in the trees
-run forms the dynamic localitive
- nasmo umpe shwayunanki hreyeptu they sailed to the other island
- eperun kehe go away!
The instrumental is used to show how the object was performed and is made with -yun
- Foysha ngakoeyun uyongi navoli I always hunt with a bow
- Smosha eptaypfukiwem mwayktaypfokiyun eptolu she’s making bread with the flour
The genitive is used to show possession –pom. It also shows the demoted indirect object in causative sentences. When used to show possession it will become before its agreement, when used to show the indirect object it will come before the verb.
- Foypom nanta My mother
- Oechipom wektoy the girls comb
- Foysha smowem meyaopom eyeshana I fed her the milk
The dative -hna is used to show the beneficiary of an action. It’s used to show another subject other than the speaker benefits from an action
- Smosha eptaypfukiwem zurahna mayaka she gave her sister the bread
The vocative eo used to address people or groups, rather than being a case ending it is a particle that comes before the addressee. It can form a simple greeting
- Eo utska Hi! Sister
Simple nouns can be formed from verb by the nominalizer –ki
- Yäna see > Yänaki sight
- Swä bleed > swäki blood
- Wu dance > wuki dance
To form the result of a process from a verb use the infix –aypf- in the second infix position
- Eptu to bake > eptaypfu > bread
- Rupfu to make/build > rupfaypfu building, construction
- Tatka to paddle > tatkaypfa > journey
Instruments can be made with –yunki
- Fepa heal> fepayunki medicine/healing ritual
- Mwaykto Grate > mwayktoyunki grater
- Kimano Bind > kimanoyunki rope
- tokpîu tap > tokpìuyunki hammer used for tattooing
one who does –ran
- navi hunt > naviran hunter
- wu dance > wuran dancer
Forming an abstract noun from a noun X-ness X-hood –rongi
- Mawe child > mawerongi childhood
- Kumia friend > kumiarongi friendship
- Hvîna good > hvìnarongi goodness
To make an abstract noun from a verb use -laki
- Ketu love > ketulaki love
- Tuki die > tukilaki death
Reverence can be expressed with the suffix –tsi. It is used when speaking to Nayune or respected peers.
- Nayunetsi honoured spirits
- Nantatsi honoured mother
As well as the localitive and dative cases Rinaki has several adpositions to help clarify direction and postion.
- Kutu- with (used to show joint participation with the verb
- Hoku- close/here
- Ya- middle/there
- Epe- far/there/the other side of geological features; mountains, rivers etc
- Ngio- right
- Zu- left
- Wio- Inside
- Ru- outside
- lun - North
- kwu- East
- utsi- South
- asta- West
They all cause lenition if used as a prefix, however if the plural is used they come at the end of the word.
- ruutspaypfu outside the basket
- foysha kutusmo eyesha I had dinner with him
- Epehnìna across the river
- Foypom wiovieta Inside my body
Phrases and ClausesEdit
Nominal phrases can be connected with kwomo which translates as and. There is no conjunction to join to verbal phrases, they simply follow one another.
- Tsumpo kwomo kioe Man and women
- Tsumposha kwomo kioesha' esha pipi' the man and women eat and drink
Phrases can be contrasted translated with uwau but/yet.
- Tsumposha ungawem uwau oratäwem puesha The man eats meat but not fruit
- Smosha kanzewem uwau smowem pachi She’ll kiss everyone but him
Simple relative clauses can be made with adjectivized verbs, this like other adjectives precede the noun
Foysha kuaneo tukaniyo tsumpowem tama zi tunkwe I’m going to see the man who killed that shark the other day
Foysha kwesmi täkpayo tsuskawem puyuya I’ll find whoever shot my bird
Dependent clauses precede the main and joined with a post positioned particle.
[yenrìyo wayräransha smopom tuskowem tuyukani susia,] nafoysha klupo We know [that the warrior killed his brother in anger]
Nantasha foywem towouuruhuna 'kan', keyestohole I ran away because my mother was going to beat me
If is expressed through hru
Luhta maka hru, erekonan wayanu If it’s sunny, we’ll play on the beach
The statement ...hru …hru implies the meaning of disjunction
'Luhta mayaka hru hitsu mayaka hru', hnunusha nchuwem epezi navoli Whether it’s sunny or raining you are going fishing tomorrow
Rinaki is split into three dialects, the first is central and described above. The first dialect to differ from the central was Easten Rinaki, later Western Rinaki diverged.
1 - Stops and fricative voice between vowels, unless preceeded by a nasal.or approximant
2 - stressed /e/ and /o/ become ie and ue
3 - /i/ > y / V_V #_V
4 -/u/ > w / V-V #_V
Cw_V tends to be pronounced labialized
Ci_V tends to be pronounced palatalized
1 - uk > kw > p
2 - Stops and fricative voice between vowels
3 - ud > dw > b
4 -ey > i, ay > e, oy > u
5 - ue/eu > œ