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Wōhūmríɂlan (wōhūmríɂla /wɔ:.hu:m.'riʔ.la/, lit. language of our people) was the language of the original language of the Ɂūmríɂlish people. It was spoken on the shores of the Mesoborean Sea, east of Toga.

Due to uncertain circumstances, the Ɂūmríɂlish people split up and moved westward. The northwestern migrations led to the birth of the Early Togan culture while the southwestern migrations led to the birth of the Moujyti culture.

NameEdit

Wōhūmríɂla comes from three words: wōɂ, incorporated form of language, ɂūm, incorporated form of the 1st person pronoun ɂû, and ríɂla people.

TypologyEdit

Wōhūmríɂlan is mostly SVO, only a few constructions violating this rule. It is strictly head-first and has no preference between prefixing, suffixing and prepositions, which are all roughly equally represented. Prefixing is mostly a matter of nouns, suffixing a matter of verbs and prepositions are used for syntactic relations and accurate locatives.

It features a word category called "modifiers" which includes adjectives and adverbs. Their actual meaning change according to whether they are used with a noun or a verb and whether they are incorporated or not. They can be prefixed or partially reduplicated to indicate a variety of things (most often intensity, sometimes something completely different).

It also features incorporation to various ends, for both nouns and verbs. For instance, noun + noun is used for inalienable possession while verb + noun is used for verbal adjectives.

What it doesn't feature: overt plural marking, genders, distinct moods, aspects (they're all mashed together in modifiers).

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabials Alveolars Velars Glottals
Nasals m m n n
Plosives Plain p b t d k g ʔ ɂ
Aspirated ph p th t kh k
Fricatives Plain f v s z x j h h
Aspirated fh f sh s xh x
Approximants β w r r
l l

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i i y y u u
Mid-close e ei o ou
Mid-open ɛ e ɔ o
Open a a

Vowels can be either short or long. In the latter case, they are marked with a macron, like so ō. If the long vowel is also the stressed vowel, it is marked with a circumflex accent, like so ô.

StressEdit

Stress is completely unpredictable and its position may change the meaning of two words otherwise seemingly identical. It is marked with an acute accent, like so ó, on short vowels. It is marked by a circumflex accent on long vowels (see above).

An example of lexical stress
Word Phonetic Meaning
tugá /thu.'ka/ berry
túga /'thu.ka/ story

In the case of incorporated words, the stress is lost through the transformation in their incorporative form.

Stress can affect the phonetic properties of phonemes it affects or those it doesn't affect. For instance, reducing /y/ to /ʉ/ while not stressed is a feature of all northwestern daughter languages of Wōhūmríɂlan.

Although it is very important to differentiate lexical items, stress is never used for grammatical purposes.

PhonotacticsEdit

A syllable can be composed according to the following formula:

C V C
single cluster
any consonant stop + fricative
stop + apprx.
fricative + apprx.
any vowel,
any length
any consonant

Allophony & SandhiEdit

  • ɂ + ɂ -> h; this process is why wōɂ + ɂūm gave wōhūm.

Nominal morphologyEdit

Wōhūmríɂlan's nouns have no inflection and no plural marking. They have a series of prefixes that acts as determiners. Noun incorporation, compounding and derivation are also treated in this section.

Determiner prefixesEdit

These prefixes aren't obligatory if they can be inferred from context. Thus, the absence of prefix doesn't necessary mean the noun is indefinite. There are two classes of determiners, both being usable together, although an order is to be respected in such case.

Articles
_V _C
Proximal p- vu-
Medial z- zu-
Distal wur- uru-
Definite ha-

The articles are the first class of determiners; they are the first to be appended to the noun.

vuzûk
vu- zûk
PROX pot, vessel
this pot

An example with a vowel-first word:

zuɂnûɂ
z- uɂnûɂ
MEDIAL Feather-claw
that feather-claw

The quantifiers make up the second class and come before the articles:

Quantifiers
_V _C
none ōu-
any gjā-
a lot, many,
much
lam- la-
few dsei-
all
(of an item)
ās- asīra-
some
(of an item)
zuɂa
all
(of many items)
each, every
kuɂ
some
(of many items)
dyn- dȳ-

Some examples:

gjāraɂaɂní
gjā- raɂaɂní
any Raqaqni
any Raqaqni

The following one implies a plurality of sons and that only some of them are referred to. The other some word, zuɂa, implies a singular noun and refers to a part of the object.

dȳɂūmgárā
dȳ- ɂūm- gárā
some- 1<INCORP>- son
some of my sons

In the previous example, ɂūm is actually a possessive determiner and takes the article slot, although it is a special case of inalienable possession marking, which requires the incorporation of the possessor noun before the possessed noun, along with morphological changes to the possessor. In this instance, ɂūm is the incorporated form of ɂû, the first person pronoun. Possession has its own section and thus isn't treated along determiners.

Last example:

lamýsru
lam- ýsru
many- fish
many/a lot of fish

A stacked example:

gjāurusâtou
gjā- uru- sâtou
any- DISTAL- cloud
any of these clouds there

Verbal morphologyEdit

The verb is made of 1 to 3 elements: the obligatory root, the tense suffix and the postposed verbal modifier.

RootsEdit

The roots contain the semantic content of the verb, like to sleep in pzújaɂ. They always end in . However, note that not all the words ending in are verbal roots.

TensesEdit

There are four formal tense markers and a fifth one, unmarked. They are as follow:

Tense Form
far past -i
close past -nā
present --
close future -ur
far future -ēit

Examples of sentencesEdit

hapéil ôjugaɂ dúnɂe
ha- péil ôjugaɂ dúnɂe
DEF- sun to shine,
to be bright
PERF
the sun shines (ie, flashes once)
hapéil ôjugaɂ
ha- péil ôjugaɂ
DEF- sun to shine,
to be bright
the sun shines/is shining
hapéil ôjugaɂi
ha- péil ôjugaɂ- i
DEF- sun to shine,
to be bright
FAR-PAST
the sun shone/was shining
hapéil ôjugaɂēit
ha- péil ôjugaɂ- ēit
DEF- sun to shine,
to be bright
FAR-FUTURE
the sun will shine/will be shining

LexiconEdit

See the Swadesh lists of Ɂūmríɂlic languages for more information; see Lexicon for the complete list

There is a special vocabulary in Wōhūmríɂlan that is used exclusively by the shaman and her apprentices. As part of the shaman's role is to tell stories and record events, this special vocabulary appears in a consequent amount of cultural material.

(Examples for latter)

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